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Studying Science

Chapter 1

324 IPC

1.1 Science Skills and Methods

What is SCIENCE ?

is a way to gather and organize information about the natural world.

knowledge

skills

observing

experiment

systemize

 

Science Skills

Data - used everyday

Observe - use of one or more of your senses

use of tools

Infer - suggest a possible explanation for an observation

Estimate - careful guess of a measurement

Measure - comparing things to a standard unit

Predict - based on experience and observations

Classify - group things together on how they look

Hypothesize - suggest an answer to a question

Record and Organize - careful record keeping

Analyze - look for trends and patterns

 

Safety Skills

Always follow safety guidelines.

Lab Safety

plant

eye

heating

clothing

poison

animal

fire

glassware

electrical

sharp objects

 

Experiments

A good way to get answers in science

observe how something behaves

investigate an observation

test an idea, prediction, hypothesis or even an inference

get an answer to a question

Controlled experiments

constants

variables

 

Methods of Science

Scientific method - systemized testing of ideas, inferences, predictions, and hypotheses

not rigid

state problem

hypothesize or predict

plan your experiment

gather data

record and organize data

analyze data

conclude

 

Facts, Theories, and Laws

Based on observations, studies, repeated experiments

Facts lead to theories

theory- an idea that explains why and how something happens

used to make predictions

theories can become a law

scientific law - sometimes stated in mathematical terms

can be changed

 

Models in Science

Scale - mathematical ratio

model airplane

1 cm to 1 m

some are drawings

diagrams , maps

built from real materials

all models are plans from which real objects can be built

 

Science and Society

Science done by people working together; not by individuals working alone.

Research group

discussions, plan experiments, share knowledge and ideas

repeat experiments and review public articles

Large scientific community

 

1-2 Measuring with Scientific Units

SI = metric system

( Systeme International d’Unites )

basic units

multiples of ten

prefix

multiplying or dividing

length, mass, time

volume, mass, weight, density, temperature

 

Scientific Notation

Large numbers

Save time

Scientific Notation - a number is written as the product of two numbers

Sample problem: textbook page 15 # 1

Practice problems: textbook page 15 # 1,2

 

Unit Calculations and Measurements

Dimensional analysis

a fraction called a conversion factor

shows how one kind of unit relates to another

Sample problem: textbook page 15 # 2

Practice problem: textbook page 15 # 3

 

Science and You

Designer Fit

clothes - standard garment sizes

headphones - jack diameter

 

1.3 Graphing

Kinds of graphs

Circle = percentages

Bar = compare measurements

Line = comparing sets of numerical data

x axis - horizontal

y axis - vertical

origin - where x and y meets

curved line

 

Science and Society

Magazines

Newspapers

Television

 

1.4 Science Tools and Technology

Connections in Science: two sciences

Study of matter: Chemistry and Physics

Science subdivisions

biochemistry

geophysics

astrophysics

applied science = technology

Tools

Particle accelerator

Computer

Spectroscope

Chromatograph

Wind tunnel

Electrophoresis Gel

Radiotelescope

Chapter 1

Careers in Science

Science and Technology

Based on the principles of physical science is ancient

stone tools 1.9 million years ago

stone ax - wedged to cut

1.6 and 0.4 mya - control and use of fire

iron, silver, gold

pots, jewelry,water proof containers

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