contains about _____ % dissolved substances.
is normally _____.
pH of seawater is approximately _____.
pycnocline is the depth zone of rapid
chain of volcanic, oceanic islands all about the same age, having the same level
of erosion, and making a slight arc would probably mean that _____
water absorbs _____ light the most rapidly.
water depth of the world’s oceans average about _____ km.
_____ % of the surface of the Earth is covered by salt water.
chemical bonds called _____ bonds form between the positively charged hydrogen
and negatively charged oxygens of adjacent water molecules.
tends to stick to itself because of its ____________________.
water is at its densest at which temperature?
oxygen minimum zone generally falls to its lowest value at which depth?
is the largest plate?
the edges of most continents are shallow undersea extensions of the land called
the _____, which gently grades from the shore to depths of several 100 m.
the outer edge of the continental shelf the bottom abruptly steepens.
This region is called the _____.
deep, flat bottom of the ocean floor is known as the _____.
and sally are trying to play catch on a merry-go-round that is rotating
counterclockwise. To these two, the
path of the ball will appear to _____ when they toss it.
to the Coriolis effect, a water current moving in the northern hemisphere will
tend to _____ as it moves along its course.
water evaporates from the ocean, the water vapor is most like _____ water.
that capture light energy and store it in the form of the chemical bonds of
organic materials are referred to as _____.
that consume plants as food are referred to as _____.
term refers to the total amount of living material in a trophic level at any
instant in time?
zones between adjacent communities are known as _____.
change in composition of species within a community is referred to as _____.
final, persistent community achieved in a certain geographic region is referred
to as the _____ community, while any intermediate ones are called _____.
larvae that must feed because they possess little yolk are called _____.
nonfeeding larvae that possess ample yolk are called _____.
comprise the _____ trophic level of marine food webs.
is the term used to describe regions where one plate dives beneath another.
may be generated by _____.
_____ is the major north-to-south current in the North Pacific Ocean.
process where deep water is brought to the surface is called _____.
possessing short life spans, rapid development tp reproduction, many
reproductive periods per year, and high death rates are called _____ species.
changing in an orderly process through modification of the environment is called
species may colonize a site. When
succession proceeds because new species that are more tolerant of conditions or
are competitively superior move in, this is called _____.
species are not competitively superior to one another and succession proceeds
according to which species occupies a site first and then holds it, this is
that are free-swimming and live in the well-lighted region beyond the
continental shelf are said to live in the _____ zone.
organisms that live in the trenches of the world’s oceans are said to live in
the _____ zone.
very long mountainous regions in the ocean floor often running down the center
of the world’s oceans are called the _____
phytoplankton constructs an external covering or shell composed of two halves of
color of light reaches the greatest
depth in the ocean before being completely absorbed?
phytoplankton is responsible for the condition known as Red Tides?
phytoplankton possess bioluminescent species?
are mostly closely related to what organism?
belong to what group?
depth is that depth at which total gross photosynthesis of phytoplankton in the
water column is _____.
greatest number of planktonic organisms is found in which phyla?
classes Thaliacea and Larvacea are planktonic, gelatinous, filter feeders of
convection cells are produced only when wind speeds are in excess of _____
amount of _____ in the world’s oceans constitutes one of the largest reserves
of organic carbon on our planet.
a statement that describes the following: When
the net 1o productivity is greater than zero.
compensation depth is that depth in the water column where _____.
dominant copepod of the North Atlantic Ocean Is _____.
is the term used to describe all the factors relating to water that affect
waters that are thermally stratified the upper water layer is _____ than the
is an important proximal stimulus that initiates and controls diel vertical
migration of zooplankton.
type of organisms is considered to be the dominant group of the zooplankton
throughout the world’s oceans?
seawater the compensation depth for net community photosynthesis is the point at
which the rate of photosynthesis _____.
an ecosystem, as energy is passed from one trophic level ( food level ) to
another the amount of usable energy _____.
Tides are caused by _______.
of bacteria by heterotrophic nanoflagellates has been termed ( the ) _____.
of plankton can vary from a few meters to _____ in size.
are masses of rotating water that have broken off from a larger ocean current
and have moved into another water mass.
turbulence in the water column caused by frictional resistance generated when
water flows over the shallow continental shelf is called _____.
zone of rapid temperature decline with depth is known as the _____.
vertebrate class except the _____ is represented in the nekton.
rete mirable is a small network of blood vessels that _______________.
a list of fish that are holoepipelagic.
a list of fish that are meroepipelagic.
structure is the gas absorptive organ of the physoclist gas bladder system?
the Cretaceous Period, which ended some 63 million years ago, the oceanic nekton
was comprised of ________________________________________.
achieve greater buoyancy by ______.
migrating to their home stream appear to find that single stream by _____.
is used in whales for __________.
is proportional to the amount of surface area in contact with water?
is proportional to the cross-sectional area of the object in contact with water?
is due to changes in speed and direction of water flow around the organisms?
kind of drag results from turbulence and must be overcome by a swimming marine
a nektonic organism was colored dark blue of dark green it would be considered
an example of?
a nektonic organism was bicolored, dark above and light below, it would be
considered and example of ?
either side of a fish’s body the rows of small tubes containing sensory pits
that are open to the water are called _____.
large rounded forehead of the toothed whales is caused by the _____, which is
associated with echolocation.
sperm whales the melon reaches its greatest development and is called the _____.
in toothed whales functions primarily in which way?
current working theory that attempts to explain the phenomenon of mass
strandings of whales is_____.
ampullae of Lorenzini, a system present in sharks and rays, is able to detect
marine mammals show a marked slowing of their heartbeat during the dive.
This phenomenon is called _____.
base of the food chain for the Galapagos Rift and other marine hydrothermal
vents is _____.
deep-water abyssal animals are members of what group?
transition zone between the well-lighted, upper waters and those to which no
sunlight reaches is termed the _____ zone.
that live in the deep waters of the trenches occupy the _____ zone.
increases approximately ____ atmospheres for each _____ meter in depth in the
region in the water column where temperature changes most rapidly is called the
oxygen minimum zone lies between about _____ and _____ m.
represents food to deep-sea animals only after acted upon by bacteria.
communities near islands or continents have _____ food than those farther from
materials are not directly accessible by animals and must be acted upon by
bacteria first. _____,_____,_____.
_____ material may be eaten directly by animals but also is utilized by
mesopelagic fish are _____.
in mesopelagic animals can function as a _____
that reproduce only once in their lifetime are called _____.
is the principle inorganic energy source for bacteria of hydrothermal vents?
worm completely lack a digestive system and obtain their energy from symbiotic
chemosynthetic bacteria that live in a special organ?
and cold seeps depend on primary production generated by _____.
life span of individual hydrothermal vents is on the order of _____.
organism is not part of the deep scattering layer?
of chemolithoautotrophic bacteria and vent animals _____ suggests that these
habitats may act as stepping stones between sulfide-based vent communities.
are not adaptations observed in mesopelagic animals?
parallel bottom community refers to ___________.
of one species from a shallow subtidal region due to the general activities of
another species ( not including predation ) is called _____.
member of the fauna which by its presence in the sediments helps to hold the
sediments in place is called _____.
scientist invented a sampler to collect samples of the infauna?
amount of light penetrating in the inshore water is usually _____ that of the
_____ fauna live on or upon the surface of the marine bottom.
zone between the lowest low-tide line and the continental shelf at 200 m is the
that burrow through the substrata of the benthos make up the _____.
concept of parallel bottom communities was developed chiefly from the work o
that cause the sediments to shift, become resuspended, or otherwise change are
that are exposed at the surface of the sediment and eat organisms from the
surface or just above it are called _____ predators.
that move down tubes or channels to attack their prey are _____ predators.
that excavate holes to get to their food are called _____ predators.
presence in the same general area of patches comprised of different groups of
organisms is referred to as _____.
beds and forests form throughout the world in _____ with _____ bottoms.
exclusion of organisms by modification of the environment by another organism is
called _____ _____ _____.
_____ _____ are those animals that live within the sediments at all times burrowing through them to find their prey.
is the major sea that does not experience tidal action?
term is used to describe a tidal cycle with a single high and low per day?
term is used to describe a tidal cycle having two highs and lows of about the
same size per day?
term is used to describe a tidal cycle having two high and low tides of unequal
height per day?
attach to hard substrata by what method?
organisms avoid the mechanical stress of wave action by permanently attaching
themselves to hard strata?
is a strategy frequently absent from intertidal animals?
_____ describes zonation along rocky shores composed of three main divisions,
known as supralittoral, midlittoral, and infralittoral.
along the vertical profile of a shore exhibiting pronounced increases in
exposure time ( time spent out of the water ) over short distances are called
_____ _____ _____ .
does not appear to be an important biotic controlling factor of zonation in the
the rocky intertidal zone what resource is in limited supply?
is a keystone species of the rocky intertidal of the Pacific Northwest?
features are and adaptation by algae that reduces grazing pressure?
organisms occurs in large clumps of genetically identical individuals ( clones
creation of open bare patches in any zone of the rocky intertidal results in
rapid colonization by _____ species.
features are the major contributors to zonation in sandy beaches?
occurs in the redox potential discontinuity layer?
compound is the most oxidized?
anaerobic respiration the final hydrogen-electron ( H+ / e- ) acceptor may be
one of many molecules. Name them.
Eh value of an anoxic mud would most likely be between ____________ mV.
one proceeds from an oxidized zone through the RPD layer and into the anoxic
xone the color of the mud changes from _____ to _____ to _____.
major predators on mud flats are _____ and _____.
central theme in marine ecology is that whenever predation is reduced
osmoconforming organism is one in which
Earth and Moon form an orbiting system, revolving around
satellite is at its closet point to the planet it orbits; this position is
group of genetically identical sea anemones comprise of _____.
rapid decrease in oxygen concentration within a muddy sediment leads to a
specialized tentacles in sea anemones are called _____.
rarely penetrates below 5 – 15 _____ into the sediments.
the phyla members of the interstitial fauna.
organisms are meiofaunal-sized animals that move and displace the ___ __ __
_____ __ __ _____.
water, what is the most important environmental factor influencing the presence
or absence of interstitial organisms?
bodies of water that would be classified as an estuary.
a coastal plain estuary.
examples of a tectonic estuary.
organism that lives in riverine-estuary environments and then migrates to the
open ocean to release its larvae is the _____ ______.
sand bars help to form an estuary by cutting off a shallow bay the resulting
estuary is called _____ _____.
where freshwater input is low and evaporation is high are known as _____.
open to the sea only during a marked wet period are called _____ _____.
the Chesapeake Bay estuary surface isohaline are
marsh primary productivity seems to be limited by what nutrient?
amount of time it takes for a given volume of freshwater to discharge from an
estuary is called the _____ time.
organisms that are unable to
tolerate much change in salinity are called _____.
specialized tissue found in estuarine plants bring oxygen to the roots?
_____ estuary is dominated by extensive mud flats with few plants, but large
populations of benthic diatoms.
_____ estuary is dominated by extensive stands of the seagrass Spartina;
this type of estuary produces extra carbon that flows on currents to the
salt marsh plants possess chemical defenses of _____ compounds.
are plants capable of growing in soils
estuary is define as
ability to control the concentration of salts or water in internal body fluids
is called _________.
control the osmotic concentration of their internal fluids, certain crustaceans
use _____ _____ _____.
the four fauna types in estuaries.
rid themselves of excessive salt by using a variety of mechanisms.
List those mechanisms.
which taxonomic group do the non-reef-forming corals belong?
organisms are corals most closely related?
polyps occupy small cups called _____ in a massive calcium carbonate skeleton.
bladelike structures of the corallite are called _____.
possess small stinging capsules called _____ that are used by the corals to
capture zooplankton food.
reefs that resemble a ring that rise out of deep water far from land are known
reefs occur near land, with a channel of water between the reef and the land.
reefs are about _____ times more productive than the open tropic seas.
amount of plankton available to corals would be sufficient to meet about ___ %
of their total energy needs.
term provide as a correct description for an increase in colony size?
term in the biological process that results in a planula larva?
organism is a member of the so-called crytofauna?
response of some corals to aggression by neighbors is to produce very long
tentacles called _____ tentacles; these possess powerful batteries of
dominant organisms of coral reefs are _____.
term _____ describes those tropical and subtropical inshore ecosystems that are
dominate by trees that grow in salt water.
reproduction in mangroves is by _____ _____.
mangroves the structures sent up above the surface by shallow roots are called
organism from what taxonomic damages mangrove roots by boring into them.
to Davis ( 1940 0 the first seral stage in mangrove succession is established by
factor or organisms produces no damage to mangals?
reefs are unique among major marine associations because
are symbiotic _____ living in corals.
most accepted theory as to the origin of atolls is called ____
is a serious disease caused by eating tropical fishes with toxins in the body?
comparing the production of coral reefs to offshore tropical waters, we find
that the coral reefs are _____ productive.
does water and debris leave a coral reef?
in the Atlantic rest on shallow platforms which are the result of the erosion
that took place in the _________.
colonial, encrusting invertebrates such as sponges, brachiopods, and tunicates
that occupy the undersides of coral heads and cliffs comprise a group called the
specialized form of predation practiced by certain small fish and some shrimps
in which ectoparasites are removed from larger fish is known as _____ _____.
is a _____ noted for its ability to destroy whole coral colonies.
are _____ _____.
catastrophic coral mortality as coral bleaching results when coral
_____ attempts to explain the high species diversity of coral reef fishes by
noting that these fish producing many offspring of any species depends on
algal ridge is coral free because
figure 9.20 in your textbook and study it thoroughly.
dinoflagellates and diatoms that have symbiotic relationships with invertebrates
are called _____.
tube-dwelling commensal invertebrates exhibit a strong _____.
symbiosis, whether cellular or chloroplast, occurs in what invertebrate phyla?
invertebrates that live on other invertebrates are called _____.
invertebrates that live inside other animals are called _____.
relationships between luminescent bacteria and marine animals are generally
confined to the group called _____.
fish are able to live among anemones because
refers to symbiotic association in which one member gains and advantage without
harming or benefiting the other.
symbiotic association in which both members require the association and both
gain an advantage is called _____.
symbiotic association in which one member gains an advantage at the expense of
the other is called _____.
anchovies, and anchovetas are commonly known as _____.
character in John Steinbeck’s novel Cannery Row was probably
based on what individual?
many Exxon captains does it take to pilot a tanker through the inner passage of
mercury into a bay along the coast of Japan led to the permanent neurological
disorder called _____ disease.
hypothectical radioisotope with a half-life of 22 years is to be disposed of in
a storage facility. How many years
must pass before this material is considered safe?
chemical is a natural shark repellent?
is the largest number of fishes that can be harvested on a continuing basis
without depleting the stocks?
attempting to track the total amount of carbon ( as CO2 ) added to the
atmosphere each year, scientists are using _____ as a distinctive tag.
dump _____ into the world’s oceans. (
several answers )
current standard fishing and economic zone for all coastal nations is _____
disease known as Minamata disease was found to be the caused by what pollutant?
has DDT seriously reduce the population of marine birds?
international agreement, what kinds of radioactive wastes are presently
permitted to be dumped in the oceans?
fishing gear continues to fish even though no longer being tended.
This is called _____.
fish that you are not interested in is known as _____.