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349 Marine Biology First Semester Exam Study Guide:  Chapter 1

Seawater contains about _____ % dissolved substances.

Seawater is normally _____.

The pH of seawater is approximately _____.

The pycnocline is the depth zone of  rapid _____ _____.

A chain of volcanic, oceanic islands all about the same age, having the same level of erosion, and making a slight arc would probably mean that _____

Pure water absorbs _____ light the most rapidly.

The water depth of the world’s oceans average about _____ km.

Approximately _____ % of the surface of the Earth is covered by salt water.

_____ chemical bonds called _____ bonds form between the positively charged hydrogen and negatively charged oxygens of adjacent water molecules.

Water tends to stick to itself because of its ____________________.

Pure water is at its densest at which temperature?

The oxygen minimum zone generally falls to its lowest value at which depth?

What is the largest plate?

Along the edges of most continents are shallow undersea extensions of the land called the _____, which gently grades from the shore to depths of several 100 m.

At the outer edge of the continental shelf the bottom abruptly steepens.   This region is called the _____.

The deep, flat bottom of the ocean floor is known as the _____.

Tom and sally are trying to play catch on a merry-go-round that is rotating counterclockwise.  To these two, the path of the ball will appear to _____ when they toss it.

Due to the Coriolis effect, a water current moving in the northern hemisphere will tend to _____ as it moves along its course.

When water evaporates from the ocean, the water vapor is most like _____ water.

Organisms that capture light energy and store it in the form of the chemical bonds of organic materials are referred to as _____.

Organisms that consume plants as food are referred to as _____.

Which term refers to the total amount of living material in a trophic level at any instant in time?

Boundary zones between adjacent communities are known as _____.

The change in composition of species within a community is referred to as _____.

The final, persistent community achieved in a certain geographic region is referred to as the _____ community, while any intermediate ones are called _____.

Free-swimming larvae that must feed because they possess little yolk are called _____.

Nonswimming, nonfeeding larvae that possess ample yolk are called _____.

Phytoplankton comprise the _____ trophic level of marine food webs.

_____ is the term used to describe regions where one plate dives beneath another.

Waves may be generated by _____.

The _____ is the major north-to-south current in the North Pacific Ocean.

The process where deep water is brought to the surface is called _____.

Species possessing short life spans, rapid development tp reproduction, many reproductive periods per year, and high death rates are called _____ species.

Communities changing in an orderly process through modification of the environment is called _____.

Any species may colonize a site.  When succession proceeds because new species that are more tolerant of conditions or are competitively superior move in, this is called _____.

When species are not competitively superior to one another and succession proceeds according to which species occupies a site first and then holds it, this is called _____.

Organisms that are free-swimming and live in the well-lighted region beyond the continental shelf are said to live in the _____ zone.

Benthic organisms that live in the trenches of the world’s oceans are said to live in the _____ zone.

The very long mountainous regions in the ocean floor often running down the center of the world’s oceans are called the _____



349 Marine Biology First Semester Exam Study Guide:  Chapter 2

What phytoplankton constructs an external covering or shell composed of two halves of silicon dioxide?

What color of  light reaches the greatest depth in the ocean before being completely absorbed?

What phytoplankton is responsible for the condition known as Red Tides?

What phytoplankton possess bioluminescent species?

Radiolarians are mostly closely related to what organism?

Foraminiferans belong to what group?

Critical depth is that depth at which total gross photosynthesis of phytoplankton in the water column is _____.

The greatest number of planktonic organisms is found in which phyla?

The classes Thaliacea and Larvacea are planktonic, gelatinous, filter feeders of phylum _____.

Langmuir convection cells are produced only when wind speeds are in excess of _____ m/sec.

The amount of _____ in the world’s oceans constitutes one of the largest reserves of organic carbon on our planet.

Write a statement that describes the following:  When the net 1o productivity is greater than zero.

The compensation depth is that depth in the water column where _____.

The dominant copepod of the North Atlantic Ocean Is _____.

_____ is the term used to describe all the factors relating to water that affect phytoplankton production.

In waters that are thermally stratified the upper water layer is _____ than the lower layers.

_____ is an important proximal stimulus that initiates and controls diel vertical migration of zooplankton.

What type of organisms is considered to be the dominant group of the zooplankton throughout the world’s oceans?

In seawater the compensation depth for net community photosynthesis is the point at which the rate of photosynthesis _____.

In an ecosystem, as energy is passed from one trophic level ( food level ) to another the amount of usable energy _____.

Red Tides are caused by _______.

Consumption of bacteria by heterotrophic nanoflagellates has been termed ( the ) _____.

Patches of plankton can vary from a few meters to _____ in size.

_____ are masses of rotating water that have broken off from a larger ocean current and have moved into another water mass.

Vertical turbulence in the water column caused by frictional resistance generated when water flows over the shallow continental shelf is called _____.

The zone of rapid temperature decline with depth is known as the _____.

349 Marine Biology First Semester Exam Study Guide:  Chapter 3

Every vertebrate class except the _____ is represented in the nekton.

The rete mirable is a small network of blood vessels that _______________.

Make a list of fish that are holoepipelagic.

Make a list of fish that are meroepipelagic.

What structure is the gas absorptive organ of the physoclist gas bladder system?

During the Cretaceous Period, which ended some 63 million years ago, the oceanic nekton was comprised of ________________________________________.

Seals achieve greater buoyancy by ______.

Salmon migrating to their home stream appear to find that single stream by _____.

Baleen is used in whales for __________.

What is proportional to the amount of surface area in contact with water?

What is proportional to the cross-sectional area of the object in contact with water?

What is due to changes in speed and direction of water flow around the organisms?

What kind of drag results from turbulence and must be overcome by a swimming marine vertebrate?

If a nektonic organism was colored dark blue of dark green it would be considered an example of?

If a nektonic organism was bicolored, dark above and light below, it would be considered and example of ?

On either side of a fish’s body the rows of small tubes containing sensory pits that are open to the water are called _____.

The large rounded forehead of the toothed whales is caused by the _____, which is associated with echolocation.

In sperm whales the melon reaches its greatest development and is called the _____.

Melon in toothed whales functions primarily in which way?

The current working theory that attempts to explain the phenomenon of mass strandings of whales is_____.

The ampullae of Lorenzini, a system present in sharks and rays, is able to detect _____.

Diving marine mammals show a marked slowing of their heartbeat during the dive.  This phenomenon is called _____.

349 Marine Biology First Semester Exam Study Guide:  Chapter 4

The base of the food chain for the Galapagos Rift and other marine hydrothermal vents is _____.

Most deep-water abyssal animals are members of what group?

The transition zone between the well-lighted, upper waters and those to which no sunlight reaches is termed the _____ zone.

Organisms that live in the deep waters of the trenches occupy the _____ zone.

Pressure increases approximately ____ atmospheres for each _____ meter in depth in the water column.

The region in the water column where temperature changes most rapidly is called the _____.

The oxygen minimum zone lies between about _____ and _____ m.

______ represents food to deep-sea animals only after acted upon by bacteria.

Deep-sea communities near islands or continents have _____ food than those farther from land.

What materials are not directly accessible by animals and must be acted upon by bacteria first.  _____,_____,_____.

_____ _____ material may be eaten directly by animals but also is utilized by bacteria.

Many mesopelagic fish are _____.

Bioluminence in mesopelagic animals can function as a _____

Organisms that reproduce only once in their lifetime are called _____.

What is the principle inorganic energy source for bacteria of hydrothermal vents?

What worm completely lack a digestive system and obtain their energy from symbiotic chemosynthetic bacteria that live in a special organ?

Vents and cold seeps depend on primary production generated by _____.

The life span of individual hydrothermal vents is on the order of _____.

What organism is not part of the deep scattering layer?

Presence of chemolithoautotrophic bacteria and vent animals _____ suggests that these habitats may act as stepping stones between sulfide-based vent communities.

What are not adaptations observed in mesopelagic animals?

349 Marine Biology First Semester Exam Study Guide:  Chapter 5

A parallel bottom community refers to ___________.

Exclusion of one species from a shallow subtidal region due to the general activities of another species ( not including predation ) is called _____.

A member of the fauna which by its presence in the sediments helps to hold the sediments in place is called _____.

What scientist invented a sampler to collect samples of the infauna?

The amount of light penetrating in the inshore water is usually _____ that of the open ocean.

The _____ fauna live on or upon the surface of the marine bottom.

The zone between the lowest low-tide line and the continental shelf at 200 m is the _____ zone.

Animals that burrow through the substrata of the benthos make up the _____.

The concept of parallel bottom communities was developed chiefly from the work o what researcher?

Animals that cause the sediments to shift, become resuspended, or otherwise change are called _____.

Animals that are exposed at the surface of the sediment and eat organisms from the surface or just above it are called _____ predators.

Animals that move down tubes or channels to attack their prey are _____ predators.

Animals that excavate holes to get to their food are called _____ predators.

The presence in the same general area of patches comprised of different groups of organisms is referred to as _____.

Kelp beds and forests form throughout the world in _____ with _____ bottoms.

The exclusion of organisms by modification of the environment by another organism is called _____ _____ _____.

_____  _____ are those animals that live within the sediments at all times burrowing through them to find their prey.

  349 Marine Biology First Semester Exam Study Guide:  Chapter 6

What is the major sea that does not experience tidal action?

What term is used to describe a tidal cycle with a single high and low per day?

What term is used to describe a tidal cycle having two highs and lows of about the same size per day?

What term is used to describe a tidal cycle having two high and low tides of unequal height per day?

Barnacles attach to hard substrata by what method?

What organisms avoid the mechanical stress of wave action by permanently attaching themselves to hard strata?

What is a strategy frequently absent from intertidal animals?

The _____ describes zonation along rocky shores composed of three main divisions, known as supralittoral, midlittoral, and infralittoral.

Points along the vertical profile of a shore exhibiting pronounced increases in exposure time ( time spent out of the water ) over short distances are called _____ _____ _____ .

What does not appear to be an important biotic controlling factor of zonation in the rocky intertidal?

In the rocky intertidal zone what resource is in limited supply?

What is a keystone species of the rocky intertidal of the Pacific Northwest?

What features are and adaptation by algae that reduces grazing pressure?

What organisms occurs in large clumps of genetically identical individuals ( clones )?

The creation of open bare patches in any zone of the rocky intertidal results in rapid colonization by _____ species.

What features are the major contributors to zonation in sandy beaches?

What occurs in the redox potential discontinuity layer?

What compound is the most oxidized?

In anaerobic respiration the final hydrogen-electron ( H+ / e- ) acceptor may be one of many molecules.  Name them.

The Eh value of an anoxic mud would most likely be between ____________ mV.

As one proceeds from an oxidized zone through the RPD layer and into the anoxic xone the color of the mud changes from _____ to _____ to _____.

The major predators on mud flats are _____ and _____.

A central theme in marine ecology is that whenever predation is reduced _________________________.

An osmoconforming organism is one in which ______________________________________________________.

The Earth and Moon form an orbiting system, revolving around __________________________________________.

A satellite is at its closet point to the planet it orbits; this position is called _____.

A group of genetically identical sea anemones comprise of _____.

A rapid decrease in oxygen concentration within a muddy sediment leads to a ________________________________.

Highly specialized tentacles in sea anemones are called _____.


349 Marine Biology First Semester Exam Study Guide:  Chapter 7

Light rarely penetrates below 5 – 15 _____ into the sediments.

List the phyla members of the interstitial fauna.

Endobenthic organisms are meiofaunal-sized animals that move and displace the ___ __ __ _____ __ __ _____.

Besides water, what is the most important environmental factor influencing the presence or absence of interstitial organisms?

349 Marine Biology First Semester Exam Study Guide:  Chapter 8

List bodies of water that would be classified as an estuary.

List a coastal plain estuary.

Give examples of a tectonic estuary.

An isohaline is _________________________________________________________________________.

One organism that lives in riverine-estuary environments and then migrates to the open ocean to release its larvae is the _____ ______.

If sand bars help to form an estuary by cutting off a shallow bay the resulting estuary is called _____ _____.

Estuaries where freshwater input is low and evaporation is high are known as _____.

Estuaries open to the sea only during a marked wet period are called _____ _____.

In the Chesapeake Bay estuary surface isohaline are ______________________________________________________.

Salt marsh primary productivity seems to be limited by what nutrient?

The amount of time it takes for a given volume of freshwater to discharge from an estuary is called the _____ time.

Marine organisms that are unable  to tolerate much change in salinity are called _____.

What specialized tissue found in estuarine plants bring oxygen to the roots?

The _____ estuary is dominated by extensive mud flats with few plants, but large populations of benthic diatoms.

The _____ estuary is dominated by extensive stands of the seagrass Spartina; this type of estuary produces extra carbon that flows on currents to the surrounding communities.

Some salt marsh plants possess chemical defenses of _____ compounds.

Halophytes are plants capable of growing in soils _______________________________________________________.

An estuary is define as ___________________________________________________________________________.

The ability to control the concentration of salts or water in internal body fluids is called _________.

To control the osmotic concentration of their internal fluids, certain crustaceans use _____ _____ _____.

List the four fauna types in estuaries.

Plants rid themselves of excessive salt by using a variety of mechanisms.   List those mechanisms.

349 Marine Biology First Semester Exam Study Guide:  Chapter 9

To which taxonomic group do the non-reef-forming corals belong?

What organisms are corals most closely related?

Coral polyps occupy small cups called _____ in a massive calcium carbonate skeleton.

The bladelike structures of the corallite are called _____.

Cnidocytes possess small stinging capsules called _____ that are used by the corals to capture zooplankton food.

Coral reefs that resemble a ring that rise out of deep water far from land are known as _____.

_____ reefs occur near land, with a channel of water between the reef and the land.

Coral reefs are about _____ times more productive than the open tropic seas.

The amount of plankton available to corals would be sufficient to meet about ___ % of their total energy needs.

What term provide as a correct description for an increase in colony size?

What term in the biological process that results in a planula larva?

What organism is a member of the so-called crytofauna?

The response of some corals to aggression by neighbors is to produce very long tentacles called _____ tentacles; these possess powerful batteries of nematocysts.

The dominant organisms of coral reefs are _____.

The term _____ describes those tropical and subtropical inshore ecosystems that are dominate by trees that grow in salt water.

Sexual reproduction in mangroves is by _____ _____.

In mangroves the structures sent up above the surface by shallow roots are called _____.

An organism from what taxonomic damages mangrove roots by boring into them.

According to Davis ( 1940 0 the first seral stage in mangrove succession is established by what species?

What factor or organisms produces no damage to mangals?

Coral reefs are unique among major marine associations because ___________________________________________.

Zooxanthellae are symbiotic _____ living in corals.

The most accepted theory as to the origin of atolls is called ____  _____ _____.

What is a serious disease caused by eating tropical fishes with toxins in the body?

When comparing the production of coral reefs to offshore tropical waters, we find that the coral reefs are _____ productive.

How does water and debris leave a coral reef?

Reefs in the Atlantic rest on shallow platforms which are the result of the erosion that took place in the _________.

Small, colonial, encrusting invertebrates such as sponges, brachiopods, and tunicates that occupy the undersides of coral heads and cliffs comprise a group called the _____.

A specialized form of predation practiced by certain small fish and some shrimps in which ectoparasites are removed from larger fish is known as _____ _____.

Acanthaster planci is a _____ noted for its ability to destroy whole coral colonies.

Mangroves are _____ _____.

A catastrophic coral mortality as coral bleaching results when coral _________________________________________.

The _____ attempts to explain the high species diversity of coral reef fishes by noting that these fish producing many offspring of any species depends on chance.

The algal ridge is coral free because __________________________________________________________________.

Find figure 9.20 in your textbook and study it thoroughly.

349 Marine Biology First Semester Exam Study Guide:  Chapter 10

The dinoflagellates and diatoms that have symbiotic relationships with invertebrates are called _____.

Many tube-dwelling commensal invertebrates exhibit a strong _____.

Algal symbiosis, whether cellular or chloroplast, occurs in what invertebrate phyla?

Commensal invertebrates that live on other invertebrates are called _____.

Commensal invertebrates that live inside other animals are called _____.

Symbiotic relationships between luminescent bacteria and marine animals are generally confined to the group called _____.

Certain fish are able to live among anemones because ___________________________________________________.

_____ refers to symbiotic association in which one member gains and advantage without harming or benefiting the other.

A symbiotic association in which both members require the association and both gain an advantage is called _____.

A symbiotic association in which one member gains an advantage at the expense of the other is called _____.


349 Marine Biology First Semester Exam Study Guide:  Chapter 11

Herring, anchovies, and anchovetas are commonly known as _____.

The character in John Steinbeck’s novel Cannery Row was probably based on what individual?

How many Exxon captains does it take to pilot a tanker through the inner passage of Alaska?

Dumping mercury into a bay along the coast of Japan led to the permanent neurological disorder called _____ disease.

A hypothectical radioisotope with a half-life of 22 years is to be disposed of in a storage facility.  How many years must pass before this material is considered safe?

What chemical is a natural shark repellent?

What is the largest number of fishes that can be harvested on a continuing basis without depleting the stocks?

In attempting to track the total amount of carbon ( as CO2 ) added to the atmosphere each year, scientists are using _____ as a distinctive tag.

Humans dump _____ into the world’s oceans.  ( several answers )

The current standard fishing and economic zone for all coastal nations is _____ miles.

The disease known as Minamata disease was found to be the caused by what pollutant?

How has DDT seriously reduce the population of marine birds?

By international agreement, what kinds of radioactive wastes are presently permitted to be dumped in the oceans?

Lost fishing gear continues to fish even though no longer being tended.  This is called _____.

Catching fish that you are not interested in is known as _____.